1. PHASES OF SYSTEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT

1.1 The six phases of System Project Management:

1.1.1 Initiation phase: Idea
1.1.2 Definition phase: What?
1.1.3 Design phase: How?
1.1.4 Development phase: How to implement?
1.1.5 Implementation phase: Implementation
1.1.6 Follow-up phase: Maintenance


1.1.1 INITIATION PHASE
• Why this project?
• Is it feasible?
• Who are possible partners in this project?
• What should the results be?
• What are the boundaries of this project (what is outside the scope of the project)?

1.1.1.1. SWOT ANALYSIS
SWOT analysis (or SWOT matrix) is a strategic planning technique used to help a person or organization identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to business competition or project planning. It is intended to specify the objectives of the business venture or project and identify the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving those objectives. Users of a SWOT analysis often ask and answer questions to generate meaningful information for each category to make the tool useful and identify their competitive advantage.

Strengths and Weakness are frequently internally-related, while Opportunities and Threats commonly focus on environmental placement.

• Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others.
• Weaknesses: characteristics of the business that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others.
• Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage. Leaders usually melt them (in a magic way) into motivational speeches for the project team.
• Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project.

ANALYSIS
A SWOT analysis, with its four elements in a 2×2 matrix.

1.1.1.2. OPPORTUNITIES FROM SWOT = MOTIVATIONAL SPEECHES
If you want to be an effective motivational speaker, you have to know how to start a motivational speech. The beginning of a motivational speech is crucial when it comes to capturing your audience’s attention. You have to succeed in capturing your audience before you can motivate anyone. There is no single right way to start a motivation speech. Different tactics work for different audiences. With that being said, here are five strategies the great motivational speakers use to start their motivational speeches.

1 – Ask a Question to Pique Your Audience’s Interest
You want your audience to feel like your speech isn’t going to be a dry, one-way lecture. Asking a question is a simple way to make your audience feel like it is a two-way conversation. Your question should act as a lead-in to the core topic of your speech. If your speech is on how to stay motivated during a weight-loss program, then your question could be something like “By a show of hands, how many of you have ever started a weight-loss program, only to give up a couple weeks in?”

2 – Start With an Activity to get Your Audience Engaged
An activity works even better than a question in getting your audience engaged with your material. The key to successfully using an activity to start a motivational speech is paying attention to detail. Ask yourself the following questions:
How many people are expected?

What are the demographics of attendees?

How much time do you have?

These seemingly insignificant details are the difference between a hit activity and a flop.

Just like asking a question, you want your activity to be a lead-in for the content of your speech. The best activities include a physical element. Say your topic is the relationship between mood and motivation. You could start your motivational speech with a breathing exercise for calming one’s mind.

1.1.1.2. OPPORTUNITIES FROM SWOT = MOTIVATIONAL SPEECHES

3 – Tell a Story to Make Your Motivational Speech More Relatable
Humans love a good story. Starting your motivational speech with a story is reminiscent of the days we learned from tribal elders through oral stories around the campfire. There are a few different types of stories you could tell, each with a different effect.
Historical Stories
You can use a story from history that relates to the subject matter of your speech. This story could be based on a popular fable or a factual historical event. The benefit of a historical story is it is easy to find a story that fits with your topic perfectly. The downside is they aren’t as personal as your other options. Your audience may relate to the story, but do they relate to you?
Professional Stories
Stories from your professional career are especially effective if your audience is made up of industry colleagues. If you are a motivational coach, tell a story about how you motivated a recent client using the advice you cover in your speech.
Personal Stories
It takes courage to tell a story from your personal life that shows your vulnerability, but it is one of the most powerful tools for connecting with your audience. You have to prove you have motivated yourself in your darkest times if you want to motivate your audience to do the same.
The type of story you tell comes down to knowing your audience.

4 – Quote a Scientific Study to Give Your Motivational Speech Authority
When it comes to how to start a motivational speech, research that backs your content is a great way to give your advice instant authority. There are studies conducted on motivation constantly in academia. Make it a point to keep updated on these studies. They could also provide material for your speeches.

5 – Address Your Audience’s Problem and Tell How You Will Motivate Them to Fix it
This final strategy is simple and to the point. People attend a motivational speech because they have a problem they want to solve. Your job is to let your audience know you understand your struggles, and that the speech you’re about to give was created to address these struggles.
How to Start a Motivational Speech: Final Thoughts
While all five of the strategies we covered are an effective way to start a motivational speech, you can only start each speech one way. Only you can make this choice. You have to know your audience, but more importantly, you have to know yourself. What kind of first impression do you want to make on your audience?
Now you know how to start a motivational speech – all that is left is the execution.

1.1.2 DEFINITION PHASE
• Preconditions: the context within which the project must be conducted. Examples include legislation, working-condition regulations and approval requirements.
• Functional requirements
• Operational requirements
• Design limitations
It is very important that all parties that are involved in the project are able to collaborate during the definition phase, particularly the end users who will be using the
project result.

RESULTS OF THE DEFINITION PHASE
• The result of the definition phase is a list of requirements from the various parties who are involved in the project. Every requirement obviously has a reverse side. The more elaborate the project becomes, the more time and money it will cost. In addition, some requirements may conflict with others.

1.1.3 DESIGN PHASE
• The list of requirements that is developed in the definition phase can be used to make design choices. In the design phase, one or more designs are developed, with which the project result can apparently be achieved.
Depending on the subject of the project, the products of the design phase can include dioramas, sketches, flow charts, site trees, HTML screen designs, prototypes, photo impressions and UML schemas.

1.1.4 DEVELOPMENT PHASE
• During the development phase, everything that will be needed to implement the project is arranged. Potential suppliers or subcontractors are brought in, a schedule is made, materials and tools are ordered, instructions are given to the personnel and so forth. The development phase is complete when implementation is ready to start. All matters must be clear for the parties that will carry out the implementation.

1.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
• The project takes shape during the implementation phase. This phase involves the construction of the actual project result. Programmers are occupied with encoding, designers are involved in developing graphic material, contractors are building, the actual reorganisation takes place.
• At the end of the implementation phase, the result is evaluated according to the list of requirements that was created in the definition phase. It is also evaluated according to the designs.

1.1.6 FOLLOW-UP PHASE
• Although it is extremely important, the follow-up phase is often neglected.
During this phase, everything is arranged that is necessary to bring the project to a successful completion. Examples of activities in the follow-up phase include writing handbooks, providing instruction and training for users, setting up a help desk, maintaining the result, evaluating the project itself, writing the project report, holding a party to celebrate the result that has been achieved

Lesson tags: phases, system project
Back to: Module 1. Communication, Coordination, Teamwork related to System Project Management